Ajay Hasia v. Khalid Mujib – A Case Analysis


The case of Ajay Hasia v. Khalid Mujib Sehravardi & Ors. is a significant judgement in Indian Constitutional Law regarding the interpretation of Article 12. It established that entities performing public functions or possessing public powers can be considered a ‘State’ under Article 12. This expanded the accountability of such entities for upholding fundamental rights. The ruling emphasized function over form, preventing evasion of constitutional obligations through changes in institutional status or structure. The decision has had a lasting impact on Indian constitutional law and influenced subsequent cases, making it a fundamental contribution to constitutional jurisprudence.

Details of the Case

The case was heard by a 5-judge Constitutional Bench, reflecting the significance of the issues at stake. The bench was composed of:

  1. Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer
  2. Justice A.P. Sen
  3. Justice E.S. Venkataramiah
  4. Justice R.S. Pathak
  5. Justice R.S. Sarkaria

Each of these Justices had notable careers in the Indian Judiciary and contributed significantly to the development of Indian law and the interpretation of the Indian Constitution. Their combined experience and expertise provided a comprehensive and considered evaluation of the issues presented before them.

Case Citations – 1981 AIR 487; 1981 SCR (2) 79

The initial hearing of the case took place on 13th December 1980. After a thorough consideration of the facts, issues and arguments put forth by both parties, the judgement was delivered in 1981.

Facts of the Case

The case revolves around the status and nature of the Regional Engineering College, Srinagar. This college. Set against the picturesque backdrop of Srinagar in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, was the focal point of this landmark legal dispute.

The genesis of the college lies in the joint initiative of the Governments of India and Jammu and Kashmir. It was established under a scheme that the Government of India had devised to set up Regional Engineering Colleges in different parts of India. This initiative was rooted in the policy of promoting technical education in the country, particularly within the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The college was established under a Memorandum of Association and registered as a Society under the Jammu and Kashmir Registration of Societies Act, 1898. However, this formal status of the college believed the extent of government involvement and control in its operations.

The Board of Governors of the college was the decision-making authority and was composed of members appointed predominantly by the two governments. The Board included representatives from the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir, the Government of India, the University of Jammu and Kashmir, the All-India Council for Technical Education, and the Central Advisory Board of Education. It also included representatives from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Government of India. The Principal of the college was an ex-officio member of the Board, and the Chairman was appointed by the Indian Government. The constitution of the Board thus mirrored the dual control of the college by the Governments of India and Jammu and Kashmir.

The college received funding primarily from these governments, with the central government contributing a significant portion. The land for the college was also provided by the State Government, with the Central Government funding the construction of buildings and infrastructure.

Despite such extensive governmental involvement, the college was registered as a Society, ostensibly an autonomous body. It was this apparent contradiction between the formal status and the practical reality of the college that brought the question of the applicability of Article 12 of the Indian Constitution into sharp focus. The crucial issue was whether an institution such as the Regional Engineering College, Srinagar, was deeply intertwined with governmental control and funding. Could be considered a ‘State’ within the purview of Article 12, thereby making it subject to the duties and responsibilities outlined in the Constitution.

Issues in Contention

The instant case presented a seminal question before the Supreme Court of India – what constitutes a ‘State’ under Article 12 of the Indian Constitution? The crux of the disputed law in determining the status of the Regional Engineering College, Srinagar. Despite being established through the combined efforts of the Governments of India and Jammu and Kashmir, and is largely managed and funded by them, the college was officially registered as a society under the Jammu and Kashmir Registration of Societies Act, 1898. The question then was whether such a body, given its considerable governmental control and funding, could be considered a ‘State’ for Article 12.

Arguments Made by the Petitioner

The Petitioners in the case, Ajay Hasia and others, sought to challenge the status of the Regional Engineering College, Srinagar, contending that it was indeed a ‘State’ within the meaning of Article 12 of the Indian Constitution.

The core argument put forth by the Petitioner was that the college, despite being registered as a society, was in essence a governmental entity. They contended that the college was created as a result of government initiatives and was funded to a significant extent by the Governments of India and Jammu and Kashmir.

Moreover, the Petitioners pointed to the composition of the Board of Governors as evidence of governmental control over the college. The Board was dominated by government appointees, including representatives from various government bodies and officials appointed by the two governments. This, they argued, demonstrated that the college was not merely a recipient of government funds but was directly controlled by the government.

According to the Petitioners, the true nature and character of the college were governmental, making it a ‘State’ under Article 12. They contended that the formality of registering the college as a society under the Jammu and Kashmir Registration of Societies Act, 1898, did not change the substance of the institution. They argued that the court should look beyond the legal form and consider the actual operations and control of the college, which, they claimed, were firmly within the purview of governmental authority.

Arguments Made by the Respondents

The Respondents, on the other hand, contended that the Regional Engineering College, Srinagar, was not a ‘State’ under Article 12. Their primary argument was based on the formal status of the college. They argued that the college, despite having significant government influence, was registered as a society and therefore, was not a government entity.

The Respondents acknowledged that the college was established by the government, received substantial government funding, and the Board of Governors included government appointees. However, they contended that the college operated as an autonomous body. They argued that the affiliation of the college to the government was nominal rather than substantial, and did not transform the college into a ‘State’.

Moreover, the Respondents pointed out that the college had its own rules and regulations, and was not directly subject to government rules. They also noted that the college had a degree of flexibility in its operations and was not under the direct control of the government in its day-to-day functioning.

The crux of the Respondents’ argument, therefore, was that the nature of the college’s registration as a society and its operational autonomy rendered it distinct from a governmental body, thereby excluding it from the ambit of ‘State’ under Article 12. They urged the court to consider the legal form of the college and its self-governing nature, arguing that the governmental influence was not sufficient to qualify the college as a ‘State’.

Ratio Decidendi of the Case

The Supreme Court of India, in its ruling, delivered a significant interpretation of Article 12 of the Indian Constitution, which has had profound implications for the definition of ‘State’. The Court ruled in favour of the Petitioners, establishing the principle that the formal status of an institution, whether registered as a society or not, is less consequential than its functional character.

In delivering its verdict, the Court held that if a body is functionally, structurally, and financially acting as an instrumentality or agency of the government, it can be classified as a ‘State’ under Article 12. This principle was encapsulated in a set of tests, each focusing on different aspects of the institution’s relationship with the government.

The functional test examined how the body operates and whether its functions are predominantly governmental in nature. The structural test scrutinized the composition of the governing body and whether it was dominated by government appointees. The financial test looked at the extent of government funding and the financial dependence of the institution on the government.

The Court held that if an institution satisfies these tests, it should be considered a ‘state’, regardless of its formal status. This verdict underscored the principle that substance takes precedence over form in constitutional interpretation.

Obiter Dicta in the Ajay Hasia Case

While the main focus of the Court’s judgement was on the interpretation of Article 12, the judges also offered observations on the broader implications of the case. They emphasized the importance of the constitutional mandate and the upholding of fundamental rights by all institutions performing public functions or wielding public power.

The Court stated that it would be contrary to the basic tenets of the Constitution to allow a body performing essential governmental functions to evade constitutional responsibilities simply by adopting a different legal form. These observations, while not directly linked to the decision, provided an insightful commentary on the ethos of the Constitution and the principles of justice, equality, and the rule of law that it embodies.

Current Status of the Case

As of 2021, the judgement of the Supreme Court in the Ajay Hasia case remains a cornerstone of Indian constitutional law. The principles established by the court, specifically the interpretation of ‘state’ under Article 12 of the Constitution, continue to guide the judiciary in subsequent cases.

The concept that the functional, structural, and financial relationship of a body with the government determines its status as a ‘state’, rather than its formal standing, is a settled legal principle. Moreover, the decision confirmed that such bodies, classified as ‘state’ under Article 12, are obligated to uphold fundamental rights, extending constitutional protections to citizens against these bodies.

The case has not been overruled or diluted by subsequent judicial decisions, and the principles articulated therein continue to hold sway. The precedent set by the Ajay Hasia case remains an authoritative interpretation of Article 12 and is routinely relied upon in constitutional adjudication. As such, the judgement’s relevance and impact continue to be felt in the Indian legal system.


In the case of Ajay Hasia etc. v. Khalid Mujib Sehravadi & Ors., the Supreme Court of India delivered a landmark judgment that had far-reaching implications for the principles of natural justice and the right to a fair hearing. The case involved the denial of admission to students by the Faculty of Medicine at the Aligarh Muslim University based on their nationality.

The Supreme Court, in its judgment, emphasized the importance of the principles of natural justice, which include the right to be heard and the right to a fair and impartial decision-making process. The Court held that the denial of admission without providing the affected students with an opportunity to be heard violated these fundamental principles.

Furthermore, the Court recognized that the right to education is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution and cannot be arbitrarily denied. The judgment affirmed the need for transparency and fairness in educational institutions and stressed that admissions should be based on merit and not on extraneous considerations such as nationality.

The Ajay Hasia case not only had a significant impact on the specific issue of admission to the Aligarh Muslim University but also laid down important legal principles that have influenced subsequent cases related to natural justice and the right to a fair hearing. The judgment reaffirmed the fundamental importance of providing an opportunity to be heard before any adverse action is taken against an individual.

Overall, the Ajay Hasia case stands as a landmark decision that upholds the principles of natural justice, protects the right to a fair hearing, and underscores the fundamental right to education. It serves as a precedent for ensuring fairness, transparency, and equality in decision-making processes, not only in the field of education but also in various other spheres of public and private life.

Ananya Konur