Criminal Justice System And Its Recent Developments


The concept of Criminal Justice System came into India with the arrival of Manu. He had described many offences and believed inside the “divine concept” which means that King is the Supreme and those are sure to observe his policies and rules. With the exchange within the concept manner of the society people began denying the King’s rule and commenced making their own law as per their convenience. The new rule that is “Might is Right” commenced being accompanied within the absence of the codified law and people started out worrying “eye for eye justice”. It turned into in this hard time most effective that the theories like Divine theory, Social Contract concept and concept of Natural Justice got here into existence. In modern times we’ve got the codified laws. The vital items of these legal guidelines are to shield society from undesirable crook gadgets and create threat of punishments to the possible law breakers. In India the administration of Criminal Justice is split into parts-

1. Substantive Law
2. Procedural Law

Substantive Criminal regulation defines the offences and punishments for the offences even as procedural administered the substantial regulation and provide the process which ends up in Justice in fact.

Read: Plea Bargaining in the Indian Criminal Justice System.

“Indeed, history is not anything extra than a tableau of Crimes and misfortunes”: VOLTAIRE


The Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs by using its request dated 24 November 2000 comprised the Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System to think about measures for patching up the crook justice framework. One of the targets of the committees become “to endorse available sources of creating cooperative energy many of the judiciary, the arraignment and the police to reestablish the understanding of the ordinary guy inside the criminal justice framework by using securing the innocent and the sufferer and by using rebuffing unsparingly the accountable and the criminal”. While alluding to the state of affairs of sufferers in the criminal justice framework in India nowadays, the board watched “that sufferers do not get at present the lawful rights and assurance they’ve the right to count on their only job in crook approaches with the intention to in general outcome in disinterestedness in the processes and subsequent contortions within the crook justice enterprise”. With this fashionable perception the advisory group checked at the state of affairs of sufferers underneath the crook justice framework, which includes the present task that the sufferer is allotted underneath the current crook regulation; arrangements for reimbursement of victims of crime, and many others. The record has additionally featured how the Supreme Court and the High Courts in India have superior the act of granting compensatory healing procedures concerning cash as well as a ways as other suitable reliefs and cures.

The document expressed “healing justice to the Bhagalpur blinded victims, rehabilitative justice to the shared viciousness victims and compensatory justice to the Union Carbide sufferers are times of the liberal bundle of reliefs and therapies synthetic by using the height court docket. The alternatives in Nilabati Behera v. State of Orissa and in Chairman, Railway Board v. Chandrima Das are illustrative of this new sample of utilising established ward to do justice to the sufferers of crime. Significant financial compensations were granted in opposition to the instrumentalities of the nation for the lack of ability to cozy the privileges of the sufferers”. The committees moreover analysed the privileges of the sufferers of crime in diverse crook justice frameworks round the world.

Taking under consideration the UK Report of 2001, the Committee made the subsequent hints:

1. The sufferer, and if he/she is useless, his prison consultant shall have the right to be impleaded as a celebration in every criminal intending wherein the rate is punishable with 7 years imprisonment or extra.

2. In pick cases notified with the aid of the ideal government, with the permission of the court an accredited voluntary organisation shall also have the right to implead in the courtroom complaints.

3. The victim has a right to be represented by means of an propose of his/her choice; supplied that an advise will be provided on the cost of the State if the sufferer isn’t always in a role to come up with the money for a attorney.

4. The sufferer shall have the right to take part in criminal trial.

5. The victim shall have a proper to select an enchantment in opposition to any unfavorable order exceeded by using the court docket acquitting the accused, convicting for a lesser offence, implementing inadequate

sentence, or granting inadequate repayment. Such attraction shall deceive the courtroom to which an appeal primarily lies towards the order of conviction of such courtroom.

6. Legal offerings to victims in select crimes may be prolonged to encompass psychiatric and clinical help, intervening time reimbursement and safety in opposition to secondary victimization.

7. Victim repayment is a country obligation in all severe crimes, whether the off ender is apprehended or now not, convicted or acquitted. This is to be prepared in a separate regulation with the aid of the Parliament. The draft invoice on the difficulty submitted to the Government in 1996 by the Indian Society of Victimology gives a tentative framework for consideration.

8. The sufferer repayment law will offer for the introduction of a victim compensation fund to be administered in all likelihood by way of the Legal Services Authority. The regulation have to provide for the scale of compensation in different offences for the steering of the Court. It may additionally specify offences wherein reimbursement might not be granted and situations underneath which it may be presented or withdrawn.

Read: Legal Aid In India And Judicial Contribution


Some of the latest tendencies which have taken region during the previous couple of years in our judicial transport machine to seek redress and accord justice to the terrible are worth citing. The importance of these developments to the transport machine of justice can’t be omitted. They have revolutionized our judicial law and could cross far in presenting remedy to the huge masses and the common guy.

In view of the importance of the difficulty count, it’s miles proposed to provide an explanation for in quick some of the critical areas of the crook justice device that have attracted the eye of the courts in recent years. These are following:

1. Public Interest Litigation;
2. Prison Justice;
3. Compensation To The Victims;
4. Bail Justice Jurisprudence;
5. Legal Aid And Legal Services.


Public Interest has emerged as part of the criminal resource motion by and large aimed toward defensive the rights of weaker sections of the community, such as the ladies, kids, bodily and mentally handicapped and the like. In India, for the duration of the last few years a new wave of Public Interest Litigation has struck the courts. It is being argued that Public Interest Litigation has opened a floodgate of litigation and with the aid of such movement, the Indian Judiciary seems to be projecting itself as the upholder of the liberty of humans.

This over act of Judiciary is appeared as nothing but mere interference inside the interest of Executive, that’s making a very good and effective authorities not possible. It is pointed out that the judiciary would possibly collide head on with the other organs of the State- the Executive and the Legislature in which event, being the weakest, it would fall apart.


“Justice delayed is Justice denied’.
This is greater so in criminal instances in which the freedom of an person is at stake and in jeopardy. The irony of destiny is that in all such instances it is the negative and the marginalised sections of the society, always. The actual plight of the undertrial prisoners become for the primary time highlighted inside the case of Hussainara Khatoon V. State of Bihar, in which it became disclosed that thousands of undertrial prisoners were languishing in the diverse jails in the kingdom of Bihar for durations longer than the most term for which they may were sentenced, if convicted.

The courtroom held that there conviction changed into in clear reduce violation of the Article 21 of the constitution. The courtroom held that fast trial is a constitutional mandate and the state cannot keep away from it.

Over the times, a lot has been emphasized over jail situations. The court docket thus issued some of instructions to the Jail Administration underneath the provisions of Indian Prison Act, 1884 to undertake corrective measures. However, there’s hardly any exchange within the conditions of jails and the mindset of prison administration. It is probably observed that the liberal remissions and award of successive paroles to the prisoners to invest energy with their families might assist to inculcate self-assurance in prisoners and lessen the pressure of a portion of the jail vices.

As Kuldeep Singh and B.L. Hansaria, JJ said:

Except if there is introspection the a part of all worried about the crook justice framework, issues figuring out with prison reforms, improvement within the prisioner’s situation, and higher employer of fairness will keep on staying on paper. It is viable to decrease the backlog of criminal cases if the judiciary and attorneys collectively motive to cease from superfluous and repeated adjournment.


Criminal regulation, which mirrors the social aspirations and requirements of most people, is intended to rebuff just as to alternate the criminals, but it scarcely takes any word of through result of wrongdoing for instance its sufferer.

The terrible victims of crime are absolutely not noted in lost compassion toward the crook. The blameworthy man is held up, nourished, dressed, warmed, lit, and engaged in a version cell to the detriment of the country, from the tax that the unlucky victim will pay to the treasury. Also, the character in query, in place of being sorted, is contributing closer to the consideration of prisoners in the course of his stay inside the prison. Truth be advised, it’s far a shortcoming of our crook regulation that the sufferers of crime do not draw in due appeal.

The code of crook system, 1973, sec.357 and Probation of Offenders Act, 1958, sec.Five; engages the courtroom to provide remuneration to the victims of wrongdoing. Anyway it’s far mentioned with regret that the courts best from time to time hotel to working towards their powers liberally. Maybe observing the detached demeanor of the subordinate courts, the apex courtroom in Hari Krishan, guided the attention of all courts to practice the arrangements under sec.357 of the Cr.P.C. Generously and furnish enough remuneration/reimbursement to the man or woman in query, specifically while accused is discharged on admonition, probation or whilst the events enter right into a compromise.

Read: Victimization Of Victim Under Criminal Justice System

Almost without a doubt as of overdue, the Supreme Court and High Courts with the aid of invoking Art.21 of the Constitution have attempted to give some compensatory remedy to the bad sufferers of illegal confinement on account of the respectable. Such instances are, anyways, numbered and aren’t going to fathom the disease.


Bail is a preferred time period and it means judicial launch from custodial egis. The right to bail-the proper to be released from jail in a criminal case, after furnishing sufficient safety and bond has been identified in every civilized society as a fundamental aspect of human rights. This is based at the principle that the object of criminal intending is to secure the presence of accused charged of a criminal offense at the time of inquiry, trial and research before the court, and to make certain the provision of the accused to serve the sentence, if convicted. It would be unjust and unfair to deprive someone of his freedom and liberty and preserve him in confinement, if his presence in the courtroom, each time required for trial, is assured.


India’s criminal justice machine and its legal guidelines were stimulated and is a reflection of the workings of the colonial times. With converting instances and advancement in thought, we have reached the crossroads where there is an urgent need of introducing amendments and new strategies of imposing and supplying people the justice they deserve. There had been many motives because of which the criminal justice system of India has evolved now not one, however many flaws. These reasons vary from carelessness of government to loopholes in legal guidelines which can be without problems manipulated. There is not any denying the fact that for the proper functioning and increase of any country, it’s miles imperative for its justice machine to be fool evidence.

Aayushi Bana

Aayushi Bana, Content Writer, Law Corner Student of 7th Semester, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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