Is Divorce Law Different For Different Religions In India?


The lawful disintegration of a substantial marriage by a court is known as Divorce. At the point when marriage separates, the separation laws give lawful answers for the spouse and the wife who can’t resolve their conjugal issues by shared participation.

In India marriage and separation laws are isolated based on the religion under:-

  • Hindu
  • Muslim
  • Christian
  • Parsis
  • Christians
  • Jews


The separation for individuals wedded under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 which is additionally the separation law accommodates the grounds of separation on which separation can be gotten as per separate from laws which are as per the following:

  1. Cruelty

Cruelty might be physical, enthusiastic, or mental savagery. As indicated by the Hindu Divorce Laws in India, in the event that one companion has a sensible worry in the brain that the other life partner’s lead is probably going to be damaging or destructive, at that point, there is adequate ground for getting a separation under the separation law because of brutality by the mate.

  1. Adultery

In India, if a man submits infidelity (for example has consensual sex outside of marriage) at that point other than being represented by separate from laws he can be accused of a criminal offense. The spouse may, obviously, seek legal separation as a common cure. On the off chance that then again, a spouse carries out infidelity, she can’t be accused of a criminal offense, however, the husband can look for the indictment of the miscreant male for infidelity. It is given as a ground of separation to both under separation laws.

  1. Desertion

One companion abandoning the other without sensible reason (mercilessness, for instance) is the ground for separate. Be that as it may, the companion who surrenders the other ought to mean to abandon and there ought to be confirmation of it. According to Hindu separation laws, the abandonment ought to have kept going in any event two nonstop years.

  1. Conversion

Separation can be looked for by a mate if the other companion changes over to another religion according to separate from laws in India. This explanation doesn’t require whenever to have gone before separation can be documented.

  1. Mental Disorder

In the event that the companion is unequipped for playing out the ordinary obligations required in marriage because of dysfunctional behavior, separation can be looked for under the Hindu separation laws. In the event that the psychological sickness is to such a degree, that the ordinary obligations of wedded life can’t be performed.

  1. Communicable Disease

In the event that the companion experiences a transferable illness, for example, HIV/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea, or a destructive and hopeless type of sickness, the Hindu Divorce Laws in India state that the other party can acquire a separation.

  1. Renunciation of the World

In the event that the mate repudiates his/her wedded life and decides on sannyasa, the abused mate may get a separation under Hindu separation laws.

  1. Presumption of Death

In the event that the life partner has not been known about as being alive for a time of at any rate seven years, by such people who might have sensibly found out about such mate, in the event that the person in question was alive, at that point the companion who is alive can acquire a legal declaration of separation under the Indian separation law.

Aside from these grounds, separate from laws likewise give extra grounds to separate from accessible to a spouse. They comprise of right off the bat, guilty pleasure of the spouse in assault or homosexuality, besides, if a marriage has been solemnized before the Hindu Marriage Act, and the husband has remarried regardless of the way that the primary wife was alive then the principal wife can document a separation request, thirdly, if a young lady has been hitched before the achievement of 15 years old and revokes her marriage before she has accomplished 18 years old, fourthly, in instances of non-dwelling together for a time of one year and the husband has ignored the judgment of satisfying the support granted to the wife by the court. Thinking about anybody of the above grounds, a spouse can record a separation request as per the separation methodology gave in Indian separation laws.

The separation under the Hindu separation law can be either Mutual Consent Divorce or the Contested Divorce. Separation laws give that in a Mutual Consent Divorce the two gatherings present a joint separation appeal for separate while in a Contested Divorce both of the life partner petitions for legal separation under Section 13 of Hindu separation law. The timespan for shared separation is 1 to 1.5 years though the timeframe for a challenged separate is 3 to 4 years.

Muslim Divorce Law

Under the Muslim Divorce Law, marriage can be broken down either by the demise of any of the gatherings to the marriage or by separate. A spouse may wed following the demise of the wife however the widow needs to sit tight for the expiry of a predefined time called Iddat as gave by Muslim separation laws. Both parties have the alternative of requiring a separation under separation laws from the agreement of marriage yet the husband has a high ground under Muslim separation laws. The spouse can break up the marriage at his will in the Muslim separation laws. The separation under the Muslim separation law can likewise occur by shared understanding. Yet, the spouse can’t separate from her better half without his assent in Muslim separation laws. She can, obviously, buy her separation from her better half and can have the marriage broken up by Tafweez (delegation). A marriage may likewise be disintegrated under the Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, 1955.

A Husband may separate in the accompanying way according to Muslim individual separation laws-

  1. Talaq-which is discharged from the marriage tie promptly or in the long run.
  1. Ila-where a spouse of the sound brain takes a pledge that he will keep away from all relationship from his better half.
  1. Zihar-where the spouse is rational, grown-up and looks at his better half to his mom or some other female inside the denied degrees.

A spouse may separate in an accompanying way under Muslim separation law-

  1. Talaqetafwiz-talaq by the spouse under the husband appointed force.
  1. Khula-spouse can request separately by offering remuneration to the husband.
  1. Lian-if the spouse puts bogus allegations of infidelity and unchastity on his better half then the wife has the privilege to request separate on these grounds under the Muslim separation laws.

Coming up next are the grounds on which a marriage might be broken up under the Marriage Act which additionally administers Muslim separation laws.

  1. Lian: Where the spouse is accused of infidelity and the charge is bogus. She can record a normal suit for the disintegration of marriage as a negligible application to the court isn’t the best possible strategy.
  1. Fask: The wiping out, abrogation, disavowal, cancellation. Before the death of the disintegration of the Marriage Act, Muslim ladies could just apply for the disintegration of their marriage under the tenet of Fask.


A Muslim lady may seek legal separation on the accompanying grounds as per the Muslim separation laws-

  1. When the whereabouts of the spouse have not been known for a time of 4 years.
  1. When the spouse has disregarded or has neglected to accommodate her upkeep for a time of two years.
  1. When the spouse has been condemned to detainment for a time of seven years or upwards.
  1. When the spouse has neglected to satisfy his conjugal commitment for a time of three years.
  1. When the spouse has been crazy for a long time or is experiencing uncleanliness or a destructive type of venereal sickness.
  1. When the spouse was weak at the hour of marriage and keeps on being so.

The lady, having been given in marriage by her dad or another gatekeeper before she achieved the age of 15 years, disavowed the marriage before accomplishing the age of 18 is a ground for substantial separation under Muslim separation laws. Counsel a separation legal advisor in India for getting a separation.

Triple talaq

Triple separation is a perceived however opposed type of separation and is considered by the Islamic legal scholars as an advancement inside the overlap of Sharia. It orders neither the authorization of the Holy Quran nor the endorsement of the Holy Prophet. As of late, the lawmaking body has passed a law pronouncing triple talaq as unlawful along these lines bringing up issues on Muslim separation laws.


The separation procedures for Indian Christians are held under their separation laws which are known as the Indian Divorce Act, 1869.

At the point when spouse may introduce separate from appeal for disintegration – Any husband may introduce a request to the District Court or to the High Court, supplicating that his marriage might be broken up on the ground that his better half has, since the solemnization thereof, been liable of infidelity.

At the point when spouse may introduce appeal for disintegration Wife may introduce a request to the District Court or to the High Court, supplicating that her marriage might be broken down on the ground that, since the solemnization thereof, her better half has traded his calling of Christianity for the calling of some other religion, and experienced a type of marriage with another lady ;

Other than the abovementioned, the separation laws accommodate the accompanying grounds of separation :

  • He has been liable for forbidden infidelity,
  • He has done polygamy with infidelity,
  • He has hitched another lady with infidelity,
  • He has submitted assault, homosexuality or brutishness,
  • Has done infidelity combined with so much remorselessness as without infidelity would have qualified her for separate from a mensa et toro,
  • Has submitted infidelity combined with abandonment, without sensible reason, for a long time or upwards.


  • The Parsi relationships go under The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act,1936. If a spouse or wife will have been constantly missing from their better half or husband for the space of seven years, and will not have been known about as being alive inside that time by those people who might have normally known about the person in question, had the person been alive, the marriage of such husband or wife may, at the occurrence of either party thereto, be broken down under the separation laws overseeing Parsis.

Special Marriage Act, 1954

The Special Marriage Act, 1954 is an Act of the Parliament of India authorized to give an exceptional type of marriage for the individuals of India and every single Indian national in outside nations independent of their religion or confidence followed by both of the gatherings. The demonstration likewise accommodates the separation laws for the individuals who have hitched under this act. Subject to the arrangements of this Act and to the separation laws and rules made thereunder, an appeal for separation might be introduced to the region court either by the spouse or the wife with the assistance of separation legal advisor in India on the ground that the respondent:-

  • has, after the solemnization of the marriage, had intentional sex with any individual other than their life partner; or
  • has abandoned the candidate for a nonstop time of at least two years quickly going before the introduction of the appeal; or
  • is experiencing a sentence of detainment for a long time or more for an offense as characterized in the Indian Penal Code.
  • has since the solemnization of the marriage rewarded the applicant with pitilessness, or has been hopelessness of unsound brain, or has been experiencing ceaselessly or irregularly mental turmoil of such a sort and to such a degree, that the candidate can’t sensibly be relied upon to live with the respondent. Clarification.— In this provision,—
  1. the articulation “mental confusion” under separation laws implies psychological sickness, captured or fragmented improvement of brain, psychopathic turmoil or some other issue or incapacity of psyche and incorporates schizophrenia;
  1. the articulation “psychopathic turmoil” under separation law implies a persevering issue or inability of brain (regardless of whether including sub-ordinariness of knowledge) which brings about unusually forceful or truly reckless direct with respect to the respondent, and whether it requires or is powerless to clinical treatment; or
  1. has been experiencing venereal illness in a transferable form]; or
  1. has been experiencing sickness, the illness not having been reached by the applicant; or
  1. has not been known about as being alive for a time of seven years or more by those people who might normally have known about the respondent if the respondent had been alive;

A spouse may likewise introduce an appeal for separate according to the Indian separation law to the locale court on the ground,—

(I) that her significant other has, since the solemnization of the marriage, been liable of assault, homosexuality or bestiality; either gathering to a marriage may introduce an appeal for separation to the area court on the ground—(I) that there has been no resumption of dwelling together as between the gatherings to the marriage for a time of one year or upwards after the death of an announcement for legal detachment in a procedure to which they were parties. (ii) that there has been no compensation of matrimonial rights as between the gatherings to the marriage for a time of one year or upwards after the death of a declaration for compensation of marital rights in a procedure to which they were parties.

No gathering can petition for a request for separate inside one year of the solemnization of the marriage.

The Irretrievable breakdown of Marriage

The Marriage Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2010 which incorporated the separation laws consolidated another ground for looking for separate under the Indian separation laws, to be specific the ‘Unrecoverable breakdown of marriage’ under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 and the Special Marriage Act, 1954. As the term proposes, it prompts a circumstance whereby, either or both the gatherings to the marriage think that its difficult to calmly live together with one another, because of character conflicts, contrasts in feeling and have lived independently from one another for an extensive stretch of time and are not, at this point too anxious to even think about furthering carry on their wedding relationship.

This article is authored by Srishti Sharma, Second-Year,  B.A. LL.B student at IIMT and School of Law, GGSIPU

Also Read – Can You File For Alimony Before Divorce?

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