Migration – An Overview of the Cause and the Solution Ahead

What Is Migration?

Human civilization has been on the run since the very earliest times. Several people are moving in search of work or employment opportunities, to join or study with family. Some are fleeing to avoid war, persecution, extremism or abuses of human rights. In reaction to the adverse effects of climate change, natural disasters or other environmental causes, many are also traveling. Today, more people live in a different country from the one they were born into. The number of immigrants reached an estimated 272 million worldwide in 2019, which is 51 million worse than in 2010. Immigrant workers make up 3.5 percentage of the world’s total population. When particularly made comparison with 2.8% in 2000 and 2.3% in 1980.

What are the Different Forms of Migration?

Migration is basically of two types: –

  1. Internal Migration.
  2. International Migration.

International migration is a constant transition from one nation to the other whereas internal migration is a continuous transition within the same region. The more distant a place is situated, the possibility would be less too that people would move to that place, in accordance with the theory of distance-decay. International immigrants are therefore far less frequent than national immigrants. The majority of people consider relocation within the country of their origin because that country maybe less stressful than foreign migration, because they find Similar language, food, television, art, entertainment, and many different social norms when they decide to move. In general, movements within a country often require much smaller journeys than that in international migration.

Why do People Migrate?

Thanks to push and pull factors people often decide that they want to move from one place to another. The push factor forces people to get out of their current location, while the pull leads people to move to a different geographical demography. Migration is a one enormous step that should not be treated lightly for most people, most of the times both push as well as the pull factors play a major role. For them to migrate, people perceive their present households and locality so adversely which make them feel backward, and look so attractively to another location that they get this strong urge to get settled at that new location.

The main forms for push and pull influences are identifiable:

  1. Economic,
  2. Cultural,
  3. Environmental.

Let us Discuss a bit more about these Influences in detail.

1. Economical Issue Subjected to Push and Pull Factor

Most population migrate on economic grounds. Citizens are dreaming of emigrating from countries with little work prospects, so they immigrate to areas where jobs appear to exist. Owing to economic instability, job opportunities frequently differ from one country to another and within the parts of the same country.

The United States of America as well as Canada being particularly major economic migrant spots. Throughout the industrial revolution, a large population of European migrants came to settle here in North America who genuinely hoped to visualize streets lined with gold. While not so much as expected but no so empty either, the United States of America as well as Canada offered opportunities for economic development for Europeans.

2. Cultural Issues Subjected to Push and Pull Factors

The Cultural issues and Reasons may make push factors especially persuasive, pushing the population to move to another country from the country they originate from. Historically, forced human migration generally happened for two major Cultural issue: bondage and Governmental Instability.

At the time during eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, an enormous number of humans were transported from one country to another as Bondage Workers or as Captivities, Mostly from Africa to the Western Part of the Globe. Now a day the reason of People moving from one place to another is not because someone tries to make them slaves but because of the political uncertainty arising from multiculturalism, forced global migration continues.

According to the UN, “migrants are individuals who have been compelled to migrate from their houses and can’t return for fear of discrimination and persecution on account of their ethnicity, faith, nationality, social class participation or political viewpoint”.

United States Commission for Migrants (www.refugees.org), which is a not for profit agency autonomous of the United states government, reported about 13.99 million immigrants in 2007-2008. Immigrants then do not have a house until some other nation decides to allow them to reside in their country as citizens or to wait until their country of origin accepts them back and they decide to go back to their original homes. For the meantime, these people then are forces to liver in tents, camps and also sit in temporary shelters or just spend time living near as river body as that fulfils their most important need i.e. Water.

3. Environmental issues Subjected to Push and Pull Factors

One of the other reasons as to why humans migrate is the very fact that drawn into visually desirable regions and to get away from dangerous ones for environmental reasons. In this age of advanced connectivity and Transport networks, we humans choose to live in fairly remote environment friendly areas and yet not feel too disconnected from job opportunities, shopping, and recreation.

For migrant’s attractive environments include beautiful sceneries such as view of a mountain from a hill top, Tropical and warm climates near the Sea. The Americans are lured to High Mountains situated in the state of Colorado, and the Alps are drag French people to eastern France. One-third of all senior citizens traveling from one United States province to another mostly prefer Florida as their choice. Fairly Warmer winter regions like south of Spain as well as southern west part of the United States drive migration from fairly cold topographies. The adverse physical conditions often drive migrants from their home. Water maybe it be extreme in the form of floods or maybe too less in the form of drought possesses the most significant threat to the climate and the human lives. Most of the people are forced to evacuate as a result of Either Scarcity or too much abundance of water as they have to live in a dangerous critical topographical region. A river’s floodplain is the region under flooding over a given number of years, based on historical patterns. A Scarcity of fluids too is on the leading driving reasons for people to move out of their property.

Possible Solution to Curb Migration

  • “Countries should foster security, literacy and job prospects and that the drivers of forced migration, including by encouraging resilience, allowing individuals to choose between staying or moving.
  • It is essential to gather, evaluate, and use reliable information and data on, amongst other things, demographics, boundary to border movements, internal relocation, immigrant communities, labor markets, seasonal patterns, literacy, and health to establish fact-based policies that assess the risks and benefits of migration.
  • Regional coordination can help minimize and maintain the legitimacy of migration’s adverse consequences. This can also add to national and global development goals by strengthening human resources through environmental sustainability and promoting longer-term economic development.

Migration has the ability to deliver positive social and immigrant socio-economic results. For countries to enjoy these advantages, their policies and practices ought to promote migrants and society’s socio-economic well-being while complying to global standards that support, preserve and implement the human rights of the individual inside the jurisdiction of a state without distinction based on ethnicity, race, sex, religion or migrant condition.


  • Environmental Push and Pull Factors—AP Human Geography Migration. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2020, from https://sites.google.com/site/aphumangeographymigration/environmental-push-and-pull-factors/environmental-push-and-pull-factors
  • jgallo. (2019, June 21). How to “solve” migration: A practical guide [Text]. Regional Office for Central America, North America and the Caribbean. https://rosanjose.iom.int/SITE/en/blog/how-solve-migration-practical-guide
  • Migration. (2018, August 24). https://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/migration/index.html
  • Push and Pull Factors. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2020, from https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/society/push-pull-factors.php
  • United Nations. (2018). Sustainable Cities, Human Mobility and International Migration: A Concise Report. UN. https://doi.org/10.18356/a11581d8-en

This article is authored by Vivek Raj, student of  B.A LL.B, (2018-2023) at National Law University Odisha.

Also Read – Refugee Crisis In The Modern Day World

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