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Prevention Of Cyber Crimes And Frauds

Introduction

Nowadays we are using the internet every day like every coin has two sides, the internet also has both advantages and disadvantages, here the main disadvantage is cybercrime.

Cybercrime is nothing but a crime in which the computer is the object of the crime(hacking, phishing, spamming) or is used as a tool to commit an offense (child pornography, hate crimes) Cybercriminals may use computer technology to access personal information, business trade secrets, or use the computer for the exploitive or malicious purpose[1].

History of cybercrime

Cybercrime is nearly as old as the internet, the first cybercrime is reported in the year 1820 itself, it has happened in the textile industry and the first spam e-mail took place in 1978. The concept of the virus was first installed on an apple computer in 1982, 16-year-old student nicknamed “Data stream” was arrested by the UK Police in 1994 for the offense of cybercrime.

Types of cybercrime

1. Hacking: unauthorized intrusion into a computer or a network.

2. Denial of service attack: It is a cyber-attack where the attackers attempt to prevent legitimate users from accessing the computers.

3. Virus dissemination: It is a malicious software program that infects computer programs by its own code.

4. Computer Vandalism: Damaging or destroying the data rather than stealing.

5. Cyber terrorism: It includes the use of internet-based attacks in terrorist activities which uses 512-bit encryption, which is impossible to decrypt.

6. Trojan horses: Trojan horses are email viruses that can duplicate themselves, steal information, or harm computer systems.

Prevention of cyber crimes and fraud

You’ve most likely heard the maxim “data is power,” and that is unquestionably evident with regards to cybercrime. Admittance to your own data is the thing that enables programmers to take advantage of your records and take your cash or your personality. Be that as it may, the correct data can likewise engage you to secure yourself from being up to speed in the flourishing business that is cybercrime.

In view of that, here is our Main 10 rundown of steps you can take to try not to turn into a casualty of cybercrime.

1) Instruction yourself and others

Programmers aren’t the ones who can acquire power from data. By teaching yourself about the kinds of tricks that exist on the Web and how to turn away them, you are putting yourself one step in front of the cybercriminals. Since phishing is common, set out to find out about the most recent phishing tricks and figure out how to perceive a phishing endeavor. Keep in mind, phishing is when programmers endeavor to bait you into uncovering individual data by professing to be a real association or individual. These tricks regularly playoff major new stories, so keep educated on the most recent news-related tricks.

2) Utilize a firewall

Firewalls screen traffic between your PC or network and the Web and fill in as an extraordinary first line of safeguard with regards to keeping gatecrashers out. Make a point to utilize the firewall that accompanies your security programming. What’s more, on the off chance that you have a home remote organization, empower the firewall that accompanies your switch.

3) Snap with alert

When you’re browsing your email or visiting over instant messenger (IM), be cautious not to tap on any connections in messages from individuals you don’t have the foggiest idea. The connection could take you to a counterfeit site that requests your private data, for example, client names and passwords, or it could download malware onto your PC. Regardless of whether the message is from somebody you know, be careful. Some infections repeat and spread through email, so search for data that demonstrates that the message is authentic.

4) Practice safe surfing

While exploring the web, you need to play it safe to stay away from fake sites that request your own data and pages that contain malware. Utilize an internet searcher to assist you with exploring the right web address since it will address incorrect spellings. That way, you will not end up on a phony page at a normally incorrectly spelled address. (Making a fake site at a location like the genuine site is designated “typo squatting,” and it is a genuinely basic trick.) You may likewise need to utilize an item like McAfee® Site Advisor® programming to help you explore. Site Advisor programming is a free program instrument that advises you if a site is protected or not right in your pursuit results, so you are cautioned before you click.

5) Practice safe shopping

As well as rehearsing safe surfing, you likewise should be cautious where you shop on the web. Be careful when shopping at a site that you’ve never visited and do a little examination before you enter your installment data. Search for a Trustmark, like McAfee SECURE™, to advise you if a site is protected. What’s more, when you’re on an installment page, search for the lock image in your program, showing that the site utilizes encryption, or scrambling, to guard your data. Snap-on the symbol to ensure that the security authentication relates to the site you are on. You likewise need to take a gander at the location bar to check whether the site begins with “https://” rather than “http://” since this is another approach to check whether the site utilizes encryption. At the point when it comes time to pay, utilize a Visa rather than a charge card. If the site ends up being deceitful your Mastercard guarantor may repay you for the charges, however with a check card your cash is no more. At last, assess the site’s security and protection strategies with respect to your own information.

6) Utilize complete security programming and keep your framework refreshed

On the grounds that programmers have a wide assortment of approaches to get to your framework and data, you need far-reaching security programming that can shield you from all points. Programming like McAfee® Security Center, accessible preloaded on Dell™ computers, can help shield you from malware, phishing, spyware, and other normal and arising dangers. Simply ensure that you stay up with the latest by choosing the programmed update work on your security control board. What’s more, remember to perform standard sweeps. You additionally need to refresh your working framework (operating system) and program with the most recent security patches. On the off chance that you are a Microsoft Windows client, you can empower programmed updates to guard your operating system.

7) Secure your remote organization

Programmers can get information while it’s on the way to an unstable remote organization. You can keep the programmers out by empowering the firewall on your switch and evolving the switch’s chairman secret phrase. Cybercriminals regularly know the default passwords and they can use them to hack into your organization. You may likewise need to set up your switch so it just permits admittance to individuals with passwords that are scrambled. Check your proprietor’s manual for guidelines on setting up encryption.

8) Utilize solid passwords

In spite of the fact that it very well might be simpler for you to recall short passwords that reference your birthday, center name, or pet’s name, these sorts of passwords likewise make it simple for programmers. Solid passwords can go far in getting your data, so pick a secret phrase that is in any event 10 characters in length and comprises of a blend of letters, numbers and exceptional characters. Additionally, consider changing your secret word intermittently to diminish its probability of being undermined.

9) Utilize sound judgment

Notwithstanding the alerts, cybercrime is expanding, energized by regular errors individuals make, for example, reacting to spam and downloading connections from individuals they don’t know. In this way, utilize the presence of mind at whatever point you’re on the Web. Never post individual data on the web or offer touchy data, for example, your government-managed retirement number and Mastercard number. Exercise alert while tapping on any connections or downloading any projects.

10) Be doubtful

Regardless of whether you see yourself as digital sharp, you need to keep your gatekeeper up for any new deceives and be proactive about your wellbeing. Reinforcement your information consistently on the off chance that anything goes wrong and screen your records and credit reports to ensure that a programmer has not taken your data or information[2].

Apart from the above-mentioned steps, there is a necessity to improve legal provisions regarding cybercrimes in India, there are many laws that punish cyber attacks and crimes such as the Information technology act, 2000 and the Indian penal code, 1860.

Chapter X1 of the IT act deals with the misconducts and offences accompanied by other regulations, for instance:

  1. Section 65 of the IT act, 2000 deals with tampering with computer source documents which may lead to imprisonment equal to 3 lakhs or fine or both.
  2. Section 66 of the act pacts with hacking with the computer system and data alteration which punishes with imprisonment for 3 years or fine or both.
  3. Sending offensive messages via communication service is punishable under section 66A.
  4. Section 43, 44(a), 44(b), 44(c), 45 also punishes with a fine for offences under the IT act 2000.

IPC also punishes certain offences associated with computer and the internet, for example:

  1. section 503 of IPC punishes for sending threatening messages.
  2. Section 463 which deals with the forgery of electronic records.
  3. E-mail spoofing is also regarded as a crime under sec 383 of the IPC.

Not only IT act 2000 and IPC deals with cybercrime but also other special laws such as Narcotic and drug prevention act which punishes for online sale of drugs.

Loopholes of It Act (2000)

While the Act has been fruitful in putting down the structure of guidelines in Cyber Space and addresses a couple of squeezing worries of abuse of innovation, it experiences a couple of genuine lacunae that have not been talked about. Numerous specialists contend that the Act is innocuous enactment which has not been totally powerful in giving punishments or authorizations against culprits who decide to abuse the compass of the internet. There are sure spaces of digital laws which need consideration.

1) Spamming

Spam might be characterized as Unsolicited Bulk E-mail. At first, it was a simple aggravation yet now it is presenting major financial issues. Without any sufficient specialized security, rigid enactment is needed to manage the issue of spam. The Information Technology Act doesn’t examine the issue of spamming by any means.

2) Phishing

Phishing is the criminally false interaction of endeavoring to secure touchy data, for example, usernames, passwords, and charge card subtleties, by taking on the appearance of a dependable substance in electronic correspondence. Phishing is commonly completed by email and frequently guides clients to enter individual and monetary subtleties at a site. Phishing is an illustration of a social designing procedure used to trick clients. There is no law against phishing in the Information Technology Act through the Indian Penal Code discusses cheating, it isn’t adequate to check the action of phishing.

3) Data assurance laws

Its laws fundamentally expect to protect the interest of the person whose information is dealt with and prepared by others. Web Banking includes the banks and their clients, however various outsiders as well. Data held by banks about their clients, their exchanges and so forth changes hand a few times. It is incomprehensible for the banks to hold data inside their own PC organizations. High dangers are implied in forestalling spillage or altering of information which request satisfactory lawful and specialized assurance. India has no law on information insurance leave alone a law overseeing a territory as explicit as an assurance of information in electronic banking.

4) Privacy assurance

Privacy and information security are significant issues that should be tended to now as data innovation expects more noteworthy significance in close-to-home, proficient, and business circles. It is likewise relevant to note here, that the shortfall of a particular protection law in India has brought about a deficiency of significant unfamiliar speculation and other business openings.

5) Cyber war

The issue of Cyber War has additionally not been talked about in the Act. Global law is a significant piece of any legitimate system and due arrangements should be made incompatibility with the worldwide structure of laws. India, lately, has confronted a few cyberattacks from China. There are no arrangements in the Act to make such culprits responsible for their activities.[3]

Conclusion:

  1. The IT (Amendment) Act, 2008, reduced the quantum of punishment for most cybercrimes. This needs to be rectified. Most cybercrimes need to be made non-bailable offenses.
  2. The IT Act does not cover most crimes committed through mobiles. This needs to rectify. A comprehensive data protection regime needs to be incorporated into the law to make it more effective.
  3. A detailed legal regime needed to protect the privacy of individuals and institutions. Cyberwar as an offense needs to be covered under the IT Act.
  4. Parts of Section 66A of the IT Act are beyond the reasonable restrictions on freedom of speech and expression under the Constitution of India. These need to be removed.

[1] Cybercrime introduction, (30, Sept, 2017) http://www.techopedia.com

[2] Protection against cybercrimes ( 05-Aug-2015) https://www.dell.com

[3] Loopholes (28-Feb-2020) www.eminentlawclasses.com

This article has been written by Raghavendra RSK, 2nd Year BA LLB(Hons) Student at University Law College, Bangalore University.

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