Can A Company Sue As An Indigent Person Under Order XXXIII Of The CPC?


The Civil Procedure Code was passed in 1908 and came into power from 1st January, 1909. The Civil Procedure Code neither makes nor removes any right. It is planned to control the methodology followed by the common court. It gathers all the laws that ought to be embraced by the common courts. The primary point of the CPC is to encourage equity and look for a conclusion to the prosecution as opposed to giving any type of disciplines and punishments.[1]

Order XXXIII of CPC, 1908

Order 33 identifies with be filled by the poverty-stricken people. An application is to be filled alongside the suit for authorization to permit the candidate to record the suit as a poverty-stricken individual. After due request the court anyway may dismiss the application for consent to document the suit as a needy individual on the ground-referenced in Rule 5. An individual having been announced as an impoverished individual can be vanished on the ground-referenced in Rule 9. Under Rule 18, the state government can offer free legitimate assistance to the impoverished individual.

Order 44 of Code of Civil Procedure accommodates establishing an intrigue as an impoverished individual. Order 33 and Order 44 of the Code of Civil Procedure absolves such penniless individual from paying essential court charge at the primary occasion and permits him to establish suit or indict offer in forma pauperis.[2]

What Comprises Indigency?

The option to sue in forma pauperis is limited to poverty-stricken people. An individual may continue as a needy individual simply after a court is fulfilled that the person can’t indict the suit and pay the expenses and costs. An individual is poverty-stricken if the installment of charges would deny one of the fundamental everyday costs, or if the individual is in a condition of impoverishment that considerably and viably impedes or forestalls the quest for a court cure. Be that as it may, an individual need not be dejected.

Can a Company sue as an indigent person under Order XXXIII of the CPC?

In the case of, Union Bank of India vs Khader International (2001 SC)

An application was recorded by an open recorded organization looking for authorization to sue as a poverty-stricken (in forma pauperis) in exercise of right under Order XXXIII of the CPC.

The Objections of the contrary party:

The contrary party brought up criticisms and fought that the offended party being an open constrained organization was not an ‘individual’ coming surprisingly close to Order XXXIII, Rule 1 CPC, and the word ‘individual’ alluded to in that applies just to a characteristic individual and not to other juristic people.[3]

Request XXXIII, Rule 1 is trailed by an Explanation to accommodate concerning who will be viewed as a ‘poverty-stricken individual’; and for this reason a ‘poor individual’ is one who isn’t equipped with adequate methods [other than property excluded from connection in execution of an announcement and the topic of the suit] to empower him to pay the charge endorsed by law for the plaint in such suit; or where no such expense is recommended, in the event that he isn’t qualified for property worth one thousand rupees other than the property absolved from connection in execution of a declaration, and the topic of the suit.

It was contended that: what is imperative to note is that preceding the correction of Rule 1 of Order XXXIII, CPC,[4] a ‘poverty-stricken individual’ was referenced in the Explanation to Rule 1 of Order XXXIII as an individual who isn’t qualified for property worth one hundred rupees other than his vital wearing clothing and the topic of the suit. This, it was contended, shown the ‘individual’ referenced in Rule 1 of Order XXXIII which alludes just to normal individual and not other juridical individuals.

It was additionally put together by the appealing party’s advice that under Rule 3 of Order XXXIII, the application to sue as a needy individual will be introduced to the Court by the candidate in person except if he is absolved from showing up in court in which case the application might be introduced by an approved operator.

Putting dependence on the abovementioned, it was contended that an open restricted organization being a juristic individual can’t present an application as per Rule 3 of Order XXXIII.[5]

Further, it was contended that under Rule 3, the individual who is introducing the application must be such individual who can respond to every single material inquiry identifying with the application and in this way, the plan of Order XXXIII of the CPC conceives just a characteristic individual to document a suit as a needy individual.


It was contended in reply that Order XXXIII is a kind arrangement planned to help the defendants who can’t pay the court expense at the underlying stage and that the said arrangement is to be interpreted generously.

It was contended that when an organization, firm, divinity, and so on are allowed to record a suit in their juristic limit, there is no motivation behind why they ought not be permitted to sue as an impoverished individual.[6]

Further, and in particular, the meaning of the word ‘individual’ contained in the General Clauses Act will apply and that all-encompassing significance is to be ascribed to the word ‘individual’ alluded to all together XXXIII. This is significant since CPC doesn’t characterize an “individual”.

Court’s Reasoning and acceptance of the proposition that a Company is a person for the purpose of Order 33 CPC and, therefore, in a position to sue Informa pauperis:

An organization, symbol or other juristic individuals can’t have the wearing clothing. Be that as it may, as these words are currently erased by the Amending Act No. 104 of 1976, the current Explanation I need alone be taken to understand the importance of the term ‘individual’ all together XXXIII. In the CPC, however the term ‘individual’ happens in a few different parts; it isn’t characterized in the Code. Along these lines, GC Act should be depended on, where “individual” incorporates a juristic individual”

The Court repulsed the conflict that since an application is required to be moved by the impoverished himself/herself/itself, an organization can’t be interpreted as “individual” since it can’t present the application itself. [7]This was held to be a wrong perusing. A Company can record a suit through its Authorized delegates and so on. An organization being a juristic individual, it would be spoken to by an individual able to speak to it. It is sufficient that an individual capable to speak to an organization need present the application under Rule 3 of Order XXXIII.

Minors, crazy people or people under any handicap are additionally qualified for record suit either spoke to through a gatekeeper or next companion. They can likewise keep up an application under Order XXXIII. Under such conditions, the genuine candidate isn’t the individual to introduce the application, however the gatekeeper or the following companion who is skillful to speak to such solicitor to introduce the application under Rule 3, Order XXXIII. Thusly, to offer importance to the word ‘individual’, the strategy endorsed under Rule 3 has no criticalness. At last, the court chose the issue for ‘Organization’ being an individual with the end goal of Order 33 CPC.


To summarize, the poverty-stricken individual, as far as clarification I to Rule 1 of Order 33 of the Code of Civil Procedure, is one who is either not had of adequate intends to pay court expense when such charge is endorsed by law or isn’t qualified for property worth one thousand rupees when such court charge isn’t recommended. In both cases, the property absolved from the connection in the execution of a declaration and the topic of the suit will not be considered to ascertain the money-related worth or capacity of such penniless individual. Accordingly, the articulation “adequate signifies” altogether 33 Rule 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure mulls over the capacity or limit of an individual in the normal course to fund-raise by accessible legitimate intends to pay court charge.

[1] Vol. 3, Doabia, T. S. Justice, ‘CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE’, Edition 13, LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur.

[2] AIR 1993 Ker. 31

[3] Vol. 2, Banerjee, A. K., COMMENTARY ON CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908’, Edition-2007, Dwivedi & Company, Allahabad.

[4] Vol. 2, Rao, V. J., THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908, Edition 5, ALT Publications, Hyderabad.

[5] P.K.Majumdar, COMMENTARY ON THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908, Edition 5, Orient Publishing company

[6] Vol 2, Mulla, THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 17th edition, B.M. Prasad, Lexis Nexis, Butterworth.

[7] Vol. 1, Sir John Woodroffe & Amar Ali, COMMENTARY ON CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE, Edition 5.

This article is authored by Ankit Bisht, Second-Year, B.A. LL.B student at JEMTEC, GGPSIU

Also Read – Who Is Entitled to File A Pauper-Suit? Procedure for Filling Such Suits

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