International Human Rights Instruments and Bodies


Human Rights are those Rights which human can entitle by the virtue of being human. Human rights are Universal they remain the same for every human being without any discrimination of caste, religion, colour, gender, occupation. Human rights are fundamental which cannot be violated or remove at any kind of consequence. It is also an indivisible right because rights are co-related to each other. Humans are absolute. After the world war, two in 1948 December, 10  United Nations take the step to the betterment of common people introduce International Human Rights Law which provides the freedom of common people to live their maintaining of personal life and liberty.


1215 Magna Carta document was came signed by king john in England, in this document church will get right to provide justice to the victims as much as possible earlier. 1689 introduce new a bill in England as the name of the bill of Rights in this bill provide power to the parliament and reduce the king power. In Magna Carta and bill of Right both are provide power to church and parliament they did not distribute the power to the common people in 1776 came US Declaration of Independence which talk about the Right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness this right should be getting every American as well as other people also.

In 1789 French follow the US declaration an introduce French Declaration which talks about the three right, Right to life, liberty, and fraternity this should be getting every human. In 1815 in Congress of Vienna convention, they try to remove slave trade. 1901 to improve working conditions they open the International labour office. 1907 in the Hague convention they try to regulate the conduct of war because what happened in the war everything is not fare there should be some rules and regulation and they try to prevent the war after the war every state face a large number of losses. In the time of war within the warrior, food and medicine should be providing. For the benefit of human beings in 1948 UN General Assembly was taken a historical decision with the help of UN member states in the name of Universal Declaration of Human Right this bill pass on 10 December 1948. This document also known as a resolution of 217 this document sign in Paris, France it consists of 30 articles with in 30 articles they discussed the various rights of human.


Human Rights gives the basic criteria for every state how to treat to their citizen. State cannot treat to their citizen as they want they should maintain the standard norm which provided by the International human right bill. Human rights its help to people live with dignity. Human rights provide the freedom to the people who they want to live they can live their live, they can express themselves, they can support any government, they can satisfy their necessary need like food, shelter, and because of international human rights, people arise their voice against the abuse from those who have more power. These rights are applicable for every human without any discrimination in worldwide.


Fundamental Right and Human Rights are very important to live a standard life for human beings but both the right are overleaped each other. The fundamental rights are primary rights, which are the need for survival as a general people of that country which is decided by the individual country, which is applicable, only that particular country. Fundamental rights are approved by an administrator. Fundamental rights can be deferent from various countries. Human Rights are applicable to the same for all human beings of the world without any discrimination. Human rights are entitled by virtue of being human. Human rights are universal, fundamental, indivisible, and absolute human rights cannot be changed at any cost.


International instruments help to maintain the obligations of international human rights, which based on the treaties. There are nine international instruments every instrument established and monitoring by a committee of experts to maintaining the treaty provision by its state parties. Those instruments are relevant to the international human rights law those instruments are divided into two parts. One part is not legally binding provisions, which provide the politically Soft law, which was adopted by the body of United Nations in the general assembly. Another one is conventions that are legally binding under international law.


The office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) this commission monitoring the international human rights bodies. Those bodies are divided into two parts one is charter-based bodies and the second one is Treaty-based bodies those are:

Charter-based bodies-

  • Human Rights Council
  • Universal Periodic Review
  • Commission on Human Rights (replace by the human rights council)
  • Special Procedure of the Human Rights Council
  • Human Right Council Complaint Procedure

Treaty-based bodies-

  • Committee on the elimination of Racial Discrimination
  • Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  • Human Rights Committee
  • Committee on the Elimination of discrimination against women
  • Committee against Torture
  • Committee on the rights of the child
  • Committee on Migrant workers
  • Subcommittee on prevention of torture
  • Committee on the rights of a person with disabilities
  • Committee on Enforced Disappearances


As per my observations International Human Rights are absolute which not changeable at any cost after the world war two in 1948 United Nations in the General Assembly within the jurisdiction of international law introduce an International Human Rights law to maintaining the obligation of human rights which is based on treaties there are International Instruments established by the committee experts to monitoring those instruments bodies who are monitoring the instruments. International human rights did not give permission to states to a role in their citizen, as they want . International law is applicable all over the world without any discrimination.


International Human Rights Law provides a framework which is most important of humans to live with dignity. These laws are applicable all over the world as a maintaining of the same criteria. Its provide protection to people that state cannot be abused their citizen. This International law bill includes the rights of rights to equality, freedom of discrimination, rights to life, liberty, persona security, freedom from torture, freedom from degrading treatment, right to equality before the law, etc. According to this law, governments have the responsibility to promote and give protection to the citizen.

This Article Written by Tanvi (Sampa) Acharjee, Student of The ICFAI University, Tripura

Also Read – Human Rights and Fundamental Rights

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