Parliament of India is the Supreme Legislative body in India, it was established on 26th January 1950 (68 years ago). It is located in New Delhi.
Parliament of India consists of
(i) President of India,
(ii) Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
(iii) Lok Sabha (House of people)
Composition of Rajya Sabha:
Rajya Sabha is the Upper house of Indian Parliament. The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha is fixed 250 by the Indian Constitution, out of 238 are to be representatives (indirectly elected) of the states and union territories and 12 other members nominated by the President of India.
The representatives of states in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members state legislative assemblies.
The forth scheduled of Indian Constitution deals with the allocation of seats in Rajya Sabha to the states and union territories. The seats allocated in the Rajya Sabha is on the basis of population.
Presently Rajya Sabha has 245 members. 229 members are representing the states and 4 members represents union territories. 12 members are nominated by the President.
Composition of Lok Sabha:
Lok Sabha is the lower house of Indian parliament. The maximum strength of Lok Sabha is fixed at 552 by Indian constitution. Out of this, 530 members are the representatives of people of states, 20 other members are representatives of people from union territories. The President can nominate two other members in the Lok sabha from Anglo Indian community.
For the purpose of election of members in lok sabha, the country is divided into several constituencies. The members are directly elected by the people from their respective constituencies. The minimum voting age is 18 (prior to 61st Constitutional amendment Act, 1988 voting age was 21)
Presently lok Sabha has 545 members.
Duration of Parliament of India (Rajya sabha and Lok Sabha):
Rajya Sabha is the permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. One third of its members retired in every two years. These retiring members are eligible for reelection and re-nomination any number of times.
Lok sabha is not a continuing chamber. Its normal term is five years from the date of its first meeting after a fresh general election. After five years it automatically dissolve.
Qualification to be a Member of Parliament:
- Must be a citizen of India
- Minimum age limit is 30 years for Rajya Sabha and 25 for Lok Sabha.
- Possess any other qualification prescribed by any law made by Parliament.
- If he holds any office of profit under the Union or State government.
- If he is of unsound mind.
- If he is a discharged insolvent.
- If he is cease to be a citizen of India,
- If he found guilty of certain election offences and corrupt practices.
- If he has been convicted for any offences that results imprisonment for two or more years.
The speaker of Lok Sabha:
- The speaker of lok sabha is elected from amongst its members, the date for election of the speaker of lok sabha is fixed by the president.
- The speaker addresses his resignation letter to the Deputy speaker of Lok Sabha. A speaker of Lok Sabha can be removed by a resolution passed by special majority by its members.
- Speaker of Lok sabha presides joint sittings of two houses and such sittings is summoned by the President to settle a deadlock between two houses on a bill.
- The Speaker of Lok Sabha decides whether a bill is money bill or not and his decision is final on this matter.
- V. Mavalankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha and Balram jakhar was the longest searving lok sabha speaker.
Deputy Speaker of lok Sabha:
- Like the speaker, deputy speaker is also elected by the lok sabha itself from amongst its members.
- The date for election of deputy speaker is fixed by the speaker. The procedure of removal of deputy speaker is the same as the speaker of lok sabha. The deputy speaker can addresses his resignation letter to the speaker of lo sabha.
- Madabhusi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was the first deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha.
Session of Parliament:
- The Budget Session (February to may)
- The Monsoon Session (July to September)
- The Winter Session (November to December)
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