What Is The Procedure Of Divorce Through Mutual Consent?


Divorce implies the disintegration of marriage by a skilled court. This paper talks about separation under Hindu Law. It contemplates the various speculations of separation deficiency, shared assent, and breakdown; and portrays the justification for separate under this Act, around Procedure for separate through common assent.


The prior separation was obscure to general Hindu law as marriage was viewed as a constant association of the couple. As indicated by Kautilya’s Arthashatra, marriage may be broken down by shared assent on account of the unapproved type of marriage. Be that as it may, Manu doesn’t have confidence in the discontinuance of marriage. He announces” let common constancy proceed till death; this, in short, might be comprehended to be the most noteworthy dharma of the spouse and wife.”[1] This changed when the separation was presented in the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

Theory of Divorce

This includes-

  1. Fault-theory;
  2. Mutual-consent theory;
  3. Irretrievable breakdown theory;
  1. Fault Theory– In this, marriage can be disintegrated just when either gathering to the marriage has submitted a wedding offense.
  2. Mutual-Consent Theory– The hidden method of reasoning is that since two people can wed by their through and through freedom, they ought to likewise be permitted to move out willingly. Be that as it may, pundits of this hypothesis state that this methodology will advance unethical behavior as it will prompt rushed separations and gatherings would break up their marriage regardless of whether there were slight contradictions of disposition.
  3. Irretrievable Breakdown– The breakdown of a marriage is characterized as “such disappointment in the marital connections or such conditions unfavorable to that relationship that no sensible likelihood stays for the companions again living respectively as spouse and wife.”[2]

Divorce under Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

In the Hindu Marriage Act, there are a few arrangements given with respect to a substantial separation. For the enthusiasm of the general public, the marriage or the conjugal relationship should be encircled by each shield for the reason indicated by law. Separation is allowed distinctly for a grave explanation in any case given other options.

The Hindu Marriage Act depends on the issue hypothesis where any of the abused life partners (Section 13(1)) can move toward the official courtroom and look for the cure of separation. Segment 13(2) gives the grounds on which just the spouse can move toward the official courtroom and look for the cure of separation.

Grounds of Divorce as per Hindu Marriage Act

The various grounds on which a decree of divorce can be obtained are as follows-

  1. Adultery– there must be willful or consensual sex between a wedded individual and another, regardless of whether wedded or unmarried, of the other gender, not being the other’s life partner, during the means of marriage. Subsequently, intercourse with the previous or last spouse of a polygamous marriage isn’t infidelity.[3]
  2. Cruelty– this includes, request of endowment, refusal to have conjugal intercourse/youngsters,[4] the birth of a youngster, drunkenness, danger to end it all and so on.
  3. Desertion– This is dismissal by one gathering of the considerable number of commitments of marriage-the changeless spurning or surrender of one life partner by the other with no sensible reason and without the assent of the other.
  4. Conversion– At the point when the other party has stopped to be Hindu by a change to some other religion for example Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, a separation can be allowed.

Concept of Divorce with Mutual Consent

Under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, the two life partners are given the option to disintegrate their marriage by a pronouncement of separation with the guide of a common separation legal advisor on more than one ground, which are explicitly identified in Section 13. Area 13B of the Act gives arrangements for separate on shared assent on the accompanying grounds:-

1) Both the gatherings to marriage or life partners have not had the option to live respectively.

2) They have been living independently for one year or more.

3) They have commonly concurred for the disintegration of the marriage or shared separation.

Common assent separate is commonly characterized as both the companions concurring for quiet splitting. One of the significant essentials for shared separation is the assent of the two gatherings to a marriage. There are two perspectives on which the couple needs to arrive at an agreement:

  • Divorce settlement
  • Maintenance issues

Procedure to file a Divorce with mutual consent

  1. Both the spouse and the wife need to record an appeal through a shared separation legal advisor looking for common separation together under the watchful eye of the District Court. The couple needs to ensure, before recording the request, they have been living independently for one year or more.
  2. When the appeal is permitted, parties are required to document the announcement. If there should arise an occurrence of the powerlessness of any gathering, any relative of such gathering may present the announcement for their benefit through a common separation attorney. This builds up the First movement.
  3. The separation is then suspended for a half year, Court, after a chilling time of a half year, will give a date for tuning in to the gatherings. During this period, any of the accomplices is qualified for pull back the common assent by recording an application under the steady gaze of the Court expressing their reluctance to look for separate by shared assent. The other accomplice needs to record a typical request for separate under the arrangements of Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1950.[5]

After plainly hearing to the gatherings and on being totally fulfilled, the Court passes an announcement of separation, accordingly pronouncing the union with be broken up:

  • In wherever where the gatherings last lived.
  • Wherever where the wedding was solemnized.
  • Wherever where the spouse is dwelling as of present.

The cooling time of a half year is given to the couple looking for separation to reevaluate the issue and repeat odds of compromise, if conceivable. If there should arise an occurrence of separation by common assent, the upkeep or divorce settlement is to be fixed by the gatherings through understanding. In joint guardianship, just one of the guardians will have physical authority while the legitimate care of the youngsters lies with both the guardians. The enthusiasm of the kid is additionally remembered by the Court all through.

On the off chance that one of the gatherings pulls back the request of separation by shared assent, other accomplice needs to record an ordinary appeal for separate from that can be allowed uniquely on certain predefined grounds like a dissertation, pitilessness, religion change by other life partners, disease, mate having repudiated the world or being absent for a 7 years or more.[6]

Requirements of Divorce by Mutual Consent

  1. The gatherings to marriage sit together either with the assistance of family members, legal advisor or in intervention, to choose the support and guardianship and visiting privileges of kids and related issues
  2. All the concurred terms and conditions are recorded in a paper which gets authoritative on them. This shared agree understanding must be legally approved and marked within the sight of a legal official. [7]
  3. An appeal for separation of both the movements (counting the waiver of a half year chilling application whenever required)
  • 4-5 ongoing photos to be connected on the appeal and the understanding also
  • Confirmation of marriage, either marriage card with photos of marriage or marriage enlistment endorsement.
  • ID cards with address confirmations of people.

After the Court records the announcements and confirms the archives distributed, and both the movements are finished up, the Court will set up a pronouncement of separation. The Court will set up this. This will formally isolate the couple.


Hindus consider marriage to be a sacred bond. Before the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, there was no provision for divorce. However, the time has changed; situations have changed; the social ladder has turned. Now the law provides for a way to get out of an unpleasant marriage by seeking a divorce in a court of law. The manner in which the judiciary is dealing with the subject of irretrievable break down of marriage, it is feared that it will completely pause the system of marriages. Therefore it is very essential that the lawmakers of our country should deal with the subject in a very cautious manner after considering in detail its future implications.

[1] Agarwal, R.K, Hindu law, Central law agency, Print 2014.

[2] http://legaldesire.com/divorce-under-the-hindu-marriage-act-1955-the-law-decodified/ .

[3] Vira Reddy v. Kistamma, 1969 Mad. 235; Subbarma v. Saraswathi, (1966) 2 MLJ 263.

[4] AIR 2002 SC 2528

[5]  http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/article/irretrievable-breakdown-of-marriage-676-1.html.

[6]  http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/irrbdom.htm.

[7] Law Teacher, “Family Law Research Paper Common Grounds For Divorce”, available at https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/family-law/family-law-research-paper-divorcelaw-essays.php, (visited on January 21, 2018).

This Article is Authored by ANKITA MISHRA, 5th Year B.B.A.LL.B (Hons.) Student of Indore Institute of Law, Indore.

Also Read – When Can A Mutual Consent Divorce Be Filed?

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